Help

This application allows an easy creation of floral diagrams, pictures describing the flower.

Almost complete description of the generator is presented here. In addition, this page contains live links demonstrating the discussed abilities right in the generator interface. If you’re looking for brief hints, you can mouse over the labels on the generator page, clarifying tooltips will appear.

Before reading these instructions, it is good to know the basics about floral diagrams and formulae.

The interface is divided into the left (1) and right part. The left portion contains the canvas for showing the generated diagram, below the diagram there is a button for downloading. The right part contains the form (2) and a field for entering the floral formula (3).

During the creation process, the user can freely alternate between submitting the formula and the form. It is perhaps favourable to start with entering the formula, so the basic data are passed to the program at once. For finalizing and refining the diagram, additional information can be entered into the form.

Entering the floral formula

The floral formula is inputted into the appropriate field without the symbols describing symmetry and sexuality. Letters denoting the organ type (P – perianth /tepals/, K – calyx /sepals/, C – corolla /petals/, A – androecium, G – gynoecium) are followed by number. Whorls are separated by “+”, the outermost whorl is entered first. Fusion between organs of the same type can be expressed by parentheses (…), between different organ types by square brackets […].

Example – entered floral formula of Primula acaulis: K5 [C(5) A5] G(5)

The field does not support text formatting (e.g. G), thus ovary position is entered as follows: _G for superior, -G for half-inferior and ^G for inferior ovary.

Example – entered floral formula of Erica carnea, including the ovary position: K4 C(4) A4+4 _G(4)

For evaluating the formula it is necessary to press the nearby submit formula button, after pressing Enter the form is evaluated.

Using the form

The perianth

The first three form sections (for tepals, sepals and petals) are almost identical.

For one whorl, a number (e.g. 5) can be entered in the field number. If there are more whorls, the numbers are separated by “+” (e.g. 5+5). Rotation is given in degrees by a number for all whorls of one organ type (e.g. 22.5), or by more numbers separated by comma for separate whorls (e.g. 22.5,60 or 0,0).

Fusion is not entered by writing parentheses into the number field, but by checking the fused checkbox.

Spiral arrangement can be enabled for the undifferentiated perianth. If the rotation is given, it indicates angles between individual tepals. Tepals can be rendered together with corolla and calyx, in such case they can be used a substitute for epicalyx/calyculus.

The perianth shape can be chosen right of the labels.

Various

The checkboxes allow to render a bract, eventually make it lost. In the same manner it is possible to draw (lost) bracteoles, join them and bring them closer by a specific degree (making an addorsed bract). It is possible to show the main axis relative to the flower.

The large field is for depicting nectaries. Information are separated by slashes (number/rotation/radius/1st dimension/2nd dimension), more whorls are separated by “+”.

Example: 5/0/100/15/20

Style defines whether the diagram is drawn after Rosypal or Ronse De Craene. This setting also influences the floral formula, which can be rendered below the diagram.

The number of symmetry planes affects the symmetry symbol in the rendered formula. It is possible to show the planes, or rotate them by a certain degree. This is convenient especially for monosymmetric flowers.

By enabling the colour, formerly black and white diagram can be made more showy.

Androecium

The section dealing with stamens is analogous to the perianth part. In addition, the stamens can be made fused with gynoecium or the perianth. It is possible to spirally arrange the stamens.

The stamen shape can be selected, it is possible to reverse the individual stamens.

Stamens can be numbered, which can be utilized for specifying the modifications.

Entering a number or range to the field modification of fusion deletes parts of the fusion (in whorls and between stamens and pistil/perianth).

By entering a number or a range in the field modification, stamens are deleted. If a letter is entered together with the number or range, the respective stamens are modified.

Example: 1-2,3s,4c,5h,6sb,7n,8r deletes the first two stamens, the third is changed into a staminodium, fourth has different shape, fifth is made lost (expressed by a star), the sixth is made a staminode of concrete shape, the seventh is staminodial nectary and the eighth is rotated 90° right

Gynoecium

If the gynoecium is apocarpous, number of separate carpels (possibly in more than one whorl) is entered. In case of cenocarpous gynoecium, number of fused carpels is given. Rotation can be specified.

Type of placentation and pistil shape can be chosen in case of cenocarpous gynoecium.

It is possible to specify ovary position and the morphology and number of ovules.

Perianth modification

In this section it is possible to change spaces between organs or modify their arrangement (by entering the number 1–18). It is possible to add “n” (thus the height of perianth parts is not decreased), “m” (it is decreased a little), “z” (emphasizes distance and rotation).

Example: corolla with open and contorted prefloration or aestivation.

The button submit formula can be used for evaluating, or Enter can be pressed.

Cloned nectaries can be drawn after checking the appropriate boxes.

Unused fields (e.g. stamens in case of a pistillate flower) can be left blank, it is not needed to input e.g. “0”.

Finalizing the diagram

The diagram can be saved by putting the address into browser bookmarks (that allows further edits in the generator), or by downloading it into the computer in .svg format. The downloaded diagram can be exported to bitmap format, or modified in graphics editor, e.g. in Inkscape.

When editing, advantage can be taken of cloned objects (ovule, stamen, carpel, nectaries on perianth parts…). The original objects are located above the canvas and all their clones are changed upon their alteration.

Licence Creative Commons

© 2014–2017 Tomáš Kebert

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